Lectures

(by date, as of August 21, 2013)

Day 2 – September 02, 2013 (Monday)

Koray Velibeyoğlu: “The Potential Values of Eryhtrai / Ildırı – An Introduction to the Regional Framework of the Intensive Programme”
This presentation is based on an on-going project that aims to stimulate local economic development in Urla-Çeşme-Karaburun Peninsula. The project was selected in a national ideas competition thanks to its focus on asset-based development, which offers an alternative roadmap for long-term sustainability of the region. The presentation covers also a wide variety of development concepts driven by regional plan documents, master planning aproaches, and thematic strategy documents.
Related Literature
* FRIEDMANN John (2006). ‘The wealth of cities: Towards an assets-based development of newly urbanizing regions’, 3rd World Urban Forum. Vancouver, Canada.
* MARZI Maurizio, ANCONA Nicoletta (2004). ‘Urban acupuncture, a proposal for the renewal of Milan’s urban ring road, Milan, Italy’, 40th ISoCaRP Congress.
* MAYER Heike, KNOX Paul L. (2006) ‘Slow cities: Sustainable places in a fast world’, Journal of Urban Affairs 28(4): 321-334.
Nurşen Kul: “Historical Settlements in Rural Environments – Ildırı Village and Its Buildings”
This lecture focuses on the traditional residential buildings of Ildırı village, as a component of a multi-layered settlement sequence with multi-period traces and remains. Although under conservation regulations since 1981, one or two storey masonry houses of Ildırı have been subjected to major demolitions, reconstructions and alterations; due to natural disasters, wars and habitation practices. Hence, the relatively modest buildings and settlement as a whole have lost their original characteristics to a certain extend. Nevertheless, an analysis of this building stock in the light of an inhabitation history of the site reveals values and meanings other than those intrinsic in its physical qualities. This analysis will be complemented with a discussion on the conservation status of the building stock, touching upon problems such as poor housing and infrastructure stemming from construction restrictions that result in an inadequacy to meet the requirements of a growing population. This partially explains the frequent negative opinion among the current inhabitants about the measures taken for the conservation of the site.
Related Literature
* BUDUN Güzide (2003). Ildırı Tarihi Dokusunun Araştırılması ve Koruma Amaçlı Değerlendirilmesi [Research of Ildırı’s historical pattern and evaluation for preservation]. Unpublished M.S. in Architecture-Restoration dissertation. Izmir: Dokuz Eylül University, Graduate Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences.
* TUNÇOKU Selim Sarp, ARSLAN AVAR Adile, İNCEKÖSE Ülkü, AKIŞ, Tonguç (2012). İzmir Kırsal Alan Yerleşim ve Konut Envanteri 1. Kırsal Yerleşimler I. İzmir: Cihangir Çınar Ajans Matbaacılık Ti. Ve San. Ltd. Şti., p. 19.

Day 3 – September 3, 2013 (Tuesday)

Ayşe Gül Akalın: “Erythrai – The Historic Site and Current Excavations”
This lecture will introduce Erythrai, focusing on its historic importance, research history and major urban finds. Ancient Erythrai was a prominent harbour settlement among the twelve Ionian city-states. Located in modern Ildırı village of Karaburun Peninsula (İzmir), Erythrai was first excavated in 1964-1982 by Ekrem Akurgal of Ankara University. Throwing important light on chronology problems in Ionia, his finds dating from sub-geometric up to Roman periods portrayed an initial 9th century BC Phoenician colony that proved influential in the socio-political transformations of Ionia up to 4th century BC, thanks to its cosmopolitan population and topographic advantages. The Archaic Temple of Athena, Hellenistic city walls, Hellenistic-Roman theatre, Roman Heroon, and four Roman period houses on modern Cennettepe were the important focuses of Akurgal’s excavations. Second generation research by Ankara University since 2003 is unearthing Early Bronze Age remains at Cennettepe, revealing the early settlement history of the site as a harbour, like the recently-excavated Çeşme Bağlararası and Limantepe in the peninsula, also in the light of underwater research at coastal Erythrai.
General References in English
* AKALIN Ayşe Gül (2008). “Traces of the Mother Goddess in Erythrai”, Asia Minor Studien 65: 1-7.
* AKURGAL Ekrem (1979). Erythrai, an ancient Ionian city. Izmir: Tifset A.Ş.
* AKURGAL Ekrem (1978). “Ildırı (Erythrai)”, in Ancient Civilizations and Ruins of Turkey. From Prehistoric Times until the End of the Roman Empire. İstanbul: Haşet Kitabevi, pp. 231-233.
* AKURGAL Ekrem (1976). “Erythrai (Ildırı) Turkey”, in: Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister (eds.), The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Retrievable from http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0006:entry=erythrai-2, last accessed on 10 August 2013.
Ebru Torun: “From Archaeological Conservation to Heritage Management at Sagalassos”
This lecture presents the evolution of the Sagalassos Archaeological Research Project from a purely academic practice in interdisciplinary archaeological research into a complex heritage management case. The project is a large-scale undertaking involving urban excavation and territorial survey in Southwest Turkey, exposing the ancient city of Sagalassos over the last 23 years. The same two decades have also been a remarkable period for the disciplines of archaeology and conservation, bringing about fundamental changes both in theory and practice, paving the way towards an integrated heritage management. The process was instigated by several international charters and European conventions among which the Valletta and the more recent Florence Conventions can be cited as the most significant (Antrop 2012). Even if just for this overlap, the Sagalassos Project is an appropriate case study to observe the reaction of archaeological practice to theoretical, legislative, social and economic change. The lecture evaluates briefly the past 20 years of scientific work at Sagalassos discussing its interdisciplinary structure and relation to conservation. We then present the challenge of change the project faces today, the preliminary steps taken towards management, and the resulting reformation foreseen to convert its targets and mechanism to adopt the heritage management vision.
References
* ANTROP Marc (2012). “Intrinsic Values of Landscapes”, in: Thymio Papayannis and Peter Howard (eds) Reclaiming the Greek Landscape. Athens: Med-INA, pp. 31-42. Retrievable from http://med-ina.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=IRPlLizdoVA%3D&tabid=67&mid=436, last accessed on 6 August 2013.
* COUNCIL OF EUROPE (2000). European Landscape Convention. Retrievable from http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/Html/176.htm, last accessed on 6 August 2013.
* ROCKMAN Marcy, FLATMAN Joe (eds) (2012). “Editors’ introduction”, in: Archaeology in Society. Its Relevance in the Modern World. New York: Springer, pp. vii-xiii.
* SMITH, Laurajane (2008). “Towards a Theoretical framework for Archaeological Heritage Management”, in: Graham Fairclough, Rodney Harrison, John H. Jameson and John Schofield (eds), The Heritage Reader. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 62-74.
Ulrike Herbig: “Recording and Documentation of Cultural Heritage”
The presentation of architecture using moving pictures gains more and more importance, at the university but also in working life. The lecture provides an introduction into the production of films for a vivid and individual presentation of architecture and cultural heritage. Different working steps of the production of a filmic documentation are exemplified and worked out by the students on a concrete example. The lecture spans from the general preparation, the introduction into the recording of pictures and sound, to the editing of the material, cutting, editing of the text, to finally the design of the filmic documentation. For the practical part, the student groups (2-4 students) will chose a topic related to the studio tracks of the program and present it in the frame of a short film.
Recording and Documentation of Cultural Heritage
* CSAPLOVICS Elmar, HERBIG Ulrike, DIEKMANN Christiane (2004). ‘World Heritage in the Digital Age, an interdisciplinary approach’, in: Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage (ed.); Heritage Management Mapping: GIS and Multimedia. Alexandria – Egypt, October 21-23, 2002. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Center, pp. 55-63.
* HERBIG Ulrike (2009). ‘Documentation and other media’, in: Petra Gruber, Ulrike Herbig (eds.), Traditional Architecture and Art on Nias, Indonesia, Vienna: ICRA, pp 126-129.
* for examples see:http://youtube.com/user/uherbig

Day 4 – September 4, 2013 (Wednesday)

Jeroen Poblome: “Archaeological Landscapes in Motion”
Archaeology, as any other academic discipline, tends to follow mainstream developments in science and society. Sustainable development, regionality and cultural heritage are fashionable terms in most archaeological project applications nowadays. The question is whether these links are so straightforward as these may seem at first sight. Is the field of archaeology necessarily and always equal to that of cultural heritage? Is understanding how regions functioned in the past ipso facto relevant for managing present-day developments? How different does archaeology need to engage with other disciplines to function in this field? And if we all agree that archaeology should be socially relevant, what do we actually mean with that? The method lecture wishes to expose students to developing trends in the archaeological branche in order to sustain their general critical reflection throughout the workshop.
Gudrun Styhler-Aydın: “Integrated Building Survey – Methods from Measurement by Hand to the Use of High Technology Instruments”
The lecture deals with different techniques of measuring, documenting and analysing historical buildings. It is based on the use of high-end technologies like totalstations and laserscanners and their combination with traditional measurement techniques. The structure will be documented with the highest possible geometrical precision and will be analysed in order to obtain reliable information about its building history and state of conservation. The lecture aims to convey methodical basics which may be of use and relevance for deeper investigation into the field of building archaeology in the future for example in architectural surveys or architectural documentation and analysis. Among other things, the students get an overview of how to take building measurements on different scales and with varying grades of detail, to prepare mappings and photo-documentations or to complete investigations into source materials. Current examples demonstrate the analysis of various research results as well as their application.
Bibliography
* MAYER Irmengard, STYHLER-AYDIN, Gudrun (2013). ‘3D Laser Measurement as Part of an Integrative Building Survey for the Recording of Built Heritage’, in: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Cultural Heritage and New Technologies 2012, Vienna. Abstract retrievable from http://www.stadtarchaeologie.at/?page_id=5061, last accessed on 12 August 2013.
* MAYER Irmengard, STYHLER-AYDIN, Gudrun et al. (2012). ‘Integrated Building Survey for Detailed Recording of Cultural Heritage in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia’. Lecture for The Second National Built Heritage Forum, Dammam, December 10-12, 2012.
* SCHULLER Manfred (2002). Building Archaeology (Monuments and Sites: VII). München: ICOMOS. Contents available from http://icomos.org/en/get-involved/inform-us/heritage-alert/current-alerts/116-english-categories/resources/publications/242-monumentsasites-vii, last accessed on 12 August 2013.
* SCHULLER Manfred (2002). ‘The application of Bauforschung methodology and presentation’, in: Krista De Jonge and Koen Van Balen (eds.) Preparatory Architectural Investigation in the Restoration of Historical Buildings.Leuven: Leuven University Press, pp. 31,48.
Irmengard Mayer: “3D Laser Measurement as Part of an Integrative Building Survey for the Recording of Built Heritage”
As in many other fields surveying techniques profit from the introduction of digital data acquisition and management. The lecture deals with the basics of photogrammetry and laserscanning and its application in the field of archaeology and historical building survey. It explains the role of 3D laser scan raw data as a starting point for detailed architectural documentation. On basis of examples, the lecture gives hints to the approach of creating planning material like the digital rectification, orthophoto, and 3D-photomodel. In a second part, different methods of stratigrafic analysis (stonework analysis, cartography of damages) will be introduced. These methods utilise the graphic material obtained.
Bibliography
* JANSA Josef, STUDNICKA Nikolaus, FOKERT Gerald, HARING Alexander, KAGER Helmut (2004). ‘Terrestrial Laserscanning and Photogrammetry – Acquisition, Techniques Complementing One Another’, Proceedings ISPRS, Commission III WG 7.
* KRAUS Karl (2007). Photogrammetry – Geometry from Images and Laser Scans (2nd edition). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co.
* MAYER Irmengard, ESSER Gerold (2007). ‘3d-geometry and 3d-texture. Documenting early-Christian wall paintings at the Domitilla Catacomb in Rome’, in: Archäologie und Computer 2007 – Workshop 12: Kulturelles Erbe und Neue Technologien.
* MAYER Irmengard, SCHEIBLAUER Claus, MAYER Albert Julian (2011). ‘Virtual Texturing in the Documentation of Cultural Heritage’, Geoinformatics FCE CTU, 7: 1-8.
* MAYER Irmengard, TOUBEKIS Georgios et al. (2008): ‘Laser Scan Measurement of the Niche and Virtual 3D Representation of the Small Buddha in Bamiyan’, in: Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA). Germany, April 2-6, 2007. Kolloquien zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte, Vol. 10. Bonn, pp. 83-90.

Day 6 – September 6, 2013 (Friday)

Semahat Özdemir: “Local Agenda 21 Experience of Karaburun-Izmir-Turkey”
Local Agenda 21 Program was launched in 1997 in Turkey, after the “Habitat II” Meeting in İstanbul in 1996,and “Earth Summit” in Rio in 1992. This Program helps the development of public participation in solution of local problems which will be on the agenda of 21th Century. Main idea of this program is networking and collaboration of public institutions, local authorities and civil society. In more than 60 cities of Turkey, Local Agenda 21 platforms were established in last decades and Turkish experience was highlighted as a global “best practice” during the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. In this presentation the Karaburun Local Agenda 21 experience and local development projects, which were realized with collaboration, will be summarized.
Related readings
* “TURKEY LOCAL AGENDA 21 PROGRAM. Improved planning and service delivery in participatory and transparent manner”. Retrievable from: unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan031655.pdf, last accessed on 9 August 2013.
* VAROL Cigdem, YALCINER ERCOSKUN Ozge, GURER Nilüfer (2009). “Sustainable Actions of Community Entrepreneurs: Local Agenda 21 in Karaburun-Izmir”, Gazi University Journal of Science, 22(1): 51-59.
* GENLI YIGITER Reyhan, YIRMIBESOGLU Funda (2003). “Local Agenda 21 and Practices in Turkey”, ERSA 2003 Congress. Introducing GENLI YIGITER Reyhan, YIRMIBESOGLU Funda (2011). Local Agenda 21 Practices: Harran, Turkey. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller.
Zeynep Durmuş Arsan: “Rural, Historical and Ecological: Ildırı from the Perspective of Ecological Life”
The built environment, even if it has a rural character, imposes varying degrees of intervention on the nature. In the case of historical settlements, these interventions should have evolved at least into a balanced/ecological lifestyle on the part of the rural communities. Which should be the interventions/relations to retain or repair today? What kind of local and current factors direct human interventions on the rural/natural landscape? This lecture will inform you about a planned case study in Ildırı, and its early results based on a short site survey held in 2012. The study investigates basic ecological (e.g. water, food and waste) cycles of Ildırı, which each rural town in fact has. It looks at the inputs and outputs that keep or damage the ecological balance of the town. The character of relationships between the settlement and the surrounding (agricultural, sea, wetland, forest) ecosystems will be examined in terms of ecological life and rising environmental problems. The final target is to find how the current daily life, local traditions, livelihood, economic activities, consumption habits and respect to nature in Ildırı harmonise with the general ecological life expectations and, then, to note their spatial representations on the built environment.

Day 7 – September 7, 2013 (Saturday)

Kallirroi Palyvou: “Site Management Plan for the Archaeological Site of Knossos, Crete”
The archaeological site of Knossos is among the five most visited sites in Greece, with 85% of the visitors arriving on the island with cruise boats. The project for the site management of Knossos begun in 1992 and was one of the first to be implemented in Greece. It involved pedestrian walks and access systems that were organized along the concept of a three-track visitation pattern: a) a main track that takes the visitors through the major points of interest (designed to accommodate mass tourism with time limitations); b) additional visitation routes attached to the main track and c)a more relaxed visitation track at the periphery of the site, along the green belt that was planted by Arthur Evans.
Kallirroi Palyvou: “The Unification of the Archaeological Sites of Athens”
The project has a long history going back to the 19th century and the inauguration of Athens as the capital city of Greece. Between 1997 and 2002, the Greek state launched a series of projects and an architectural competition for the design of a Pedestrian Walk uniting theArchaeological Sites around the Athenian Acropolis. This was a grand scale project combining urban design and archaeological site management. A decade later, one can estimate the benefits of this major intervention in the historic center of the city as well as the social and economic implications and the way the citizens of Athens have embraced this new public space.
Mine Hamamcıoğlu-Turan: “History of Urla-Seferihisar Region (Izmir, Turkey) and Its Conservation”
History of architecture in Urla-Seferihisar region is discussed within the perspective of architectural conservation. The geographic characteristics and historical evolution of the region are pointed out. Four periods are focused on: Prehistoric, Greek, Roman and Turkish. The physical characteristics of each period are defined with regard to the historical developments. The architectural characteristics specific to their period and the region are underlined. The history of investigations and attempts for conservation are presented.

Day 9 – September 9, 2013 (Monday)

Joeri Theelen: “Documentation and Data Management at Sagalassos”
This talk will present an overview of how the excavation at Sagalassos is documented, past and present. More precisely, it will offer an insight into how data is recorded in the field and used in the office by archaeologists, architects and specialists from related disciplines. Focus will be on techniques, hardware and software in use at Sagalassos for recording an archaeological excavation, map making (GIS), CAD drafting, depot management, photogrammetry and photo management. Special attention will be given to the use of highly specialized tools that will help in becoming a skillful and above all productive archaeologist.
Further reading
GIS & Archaeology: WHEATLEY David, GILLINGS Mark (2002). Spatial Technology and Archaeology: The Archaeological Applications of GIS. London: CRC Press.
CAD (2D drafting): “MicroStation PowerDraft V8i Free Student Download”, http://www.bentley.com/en-US/Engineering%20Architecture%20Construction%20Software%20Resources/Academic%20Educators%20Students/PowerDraft%20Download/, last accessed on 10 August 2013.
Photogrammetry: HARTLEY Richard, ZISSERMAN Andrew (2004, 2nd ed.). Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Photo management with links to photogrammetry: AGÜERA Y ARCAS Blaise (2007). “Talk: ‘How PhotoSynth can connect the world’s images’,” http://www.ted.com/talks/blaise_aguera_y_arcas_demos_photosynth.html, last accessed on 10 August 2013.
Software development: WINESET Jefferey (2013). “Screencasts”, http://www.yiiframework.com/screencasts/, last accessed on 10 August 2013.
Pure data ‘mungling’ & software coding: WAY Jeffrey (2012). “Perfect Workflow in Sublime Text: Free Course!”, http://net.tutsplus.com/articles/news/perfect-workflow-in-sublime-text-free-course/, last accessed on 10 August 2013.

Day 10 – September 10, 2013 (Tuesday)

Valentina Russo: “Contemporary architecture in archaeological landscapes”
The lecture focuses the attention on methodological and planning problems related to the insertion of contemporary architecture in ancient archaeological sites. In the first part, the conceptual basis of the theme is delineated with reference to the evolution of the theory of restoration together with the critical nodes in the operative phase. Then these arguments are deepened in relation to interventions realized in the European context during the last two decades, putting in evidence the different operative approaches and the intersections with the broader aims of conservation and enhancement of the direct and indirect fruition of ancient architectures.

Day 12 – September 12, 2013 (Thursday)

Martin Bachmann: “Conservation Projects of the German Archaeological Institute in Pergamon”
The paper deals with the restoration works of the German Archaeological Institute in Pergamon and describes a tradition of conservation methods dating back to the late 19th century with the first measures under the directory of Wilhelm Dörpfeld. There was a wide range of methods especially for Pergamon adapted to the conditions of the site and developed in this time. In the 20th century greater restoration works took place and a high point was the partial reconstruction of the Temple of Trajan, one of the biggest restoration projects of the German Institute. The shelter over Building Z and the current restoration work in the Red Hall and the Gymnasium follows these rules and traditions which were developed more than 100 years ago.
References
* BACHMANN Martin (2011). ‘Almanya’da kültürel mirasın korunması ve Türkiye’de arkeolojik alanlarda restorasyon çalışmaları’, in: Orhan Silier (ed.) Onlar Nasıl Başarıyor? Avrupa’da Kültürel Miras ve STK’lar. İstanbul: Europe Nostra, pp. 90-97.
* BACHMANN Martin, SCHWARTING Andreas (2008). ‘Conservation projects in Pergamon. Building Z and the shelter constructed above it, Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites 10/2: 157-173.

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